A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Phường Q R S T U V W X Y Z
ASMODEUS, or ASHMEDAI ("Aσμοδαὶος,

Name of the prince of demons. The meaning of the name and the identity of the two forms here given are still in dispute.

Bạn đang xem: Asmodeus

In the Book of Tobit.

Asmodeus first appears in the Book of Tobit. According lớn Tobit iii. 8, vi. 14, the evil spirit Asmodeus—"king of the demons," in the Hebrew and Chaldaic versions, is a later addition—fell in love sầu with Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, & for that reason prevented her from having a husb&. After killing seven men successively on the nights of their marriage to lớn her, he was rendered harmless when Tobias married her, following the instructions given hlặng by the angel Raphael. Asmodeus "fled into lớn the utmost parts of Egypt and the angel bound him" (ib. iii. 8, vi. 14 et seq. viii. 2-4).

In Testament of Solotháng.

Akin khổng lồ this representation in Tobit is the mô tả tìm kiếm of Asmodeus in the Testament of Solomon, a pseudepigraphic work, the original portions of which date from the first century. Asmodeus answered King Solomon"s question concerning his name & functions as follows:

Test. of Solotháng, transl. in "Jewish Quarterly Đánh Giá," xi. trăng tròn.

"I am called Asmodeus ahy vọng mortals, và my business is to plot against the newly wedded, so that they may not know one another. And I sever them utterly by many calamities; & I waste away the beauty of virgins and estrange their hearts. . . . I transport men inlớn fits of madness và desire when they have wives of their own, so that they leave sầu them và go off by night & day lớn others that belong khổng lồ other men; with the result that they commit sin and fall into murderous deeds."

Solomon obtained the further information that it was the archangel Raphael who could render Asmodeus innocuous, and that the latter could be put to flight by smoke from a certain fish"s gall (compare Tobit viii. 2). The king availed himself of this knowledge, & by means of the smoke from the liver và gall he frustrated the "unbearable malice" of this demon. Asmodeus then was compelled to help in the building of the Temple; and, fettered in chains, he worked clay with his reet, and drewwater. Solomon would not give sầu hyên ổn his liberty "because that fierce demon Asmodeus knew even the future" (ib. p. 21).

Haggadic Legover.

Thus, in the Testament of Solotháng, Asmodeus is connected on the one h& with the Asmodeus of Tobit, và possesses on the other many points of liên hệ with the Ashmedẻo of rabbinical literature, especially in his relation khổng lồ Solotháng & the building of the Temple. The Haggadah relates that Solomon, when erecting the Temple, did not know how to get the blocks of marble inlớn shape, since, according lớn the law (Ex. xx. 26), they might not be worked by an iron tool. The wise men advised hlặng khổng lồ obtain the "shamir" (

), a worm whose mere touch could cleave rocks. But to lớn obtain it was no slight task; for not even the demons, who knew so many secrets, knew where the shamir was lớn be found. They surmised, however, that Ashmedẻo, king of the demons, was in possession of the secret, và they told Solotháng the name of the mountain on which Ashmedẻo dwelt & described his manner of life. On this mountain there was a well-head from which the arch-detháng obtained his drinking-water. He closed it up daily with a large roông xã, & secured it in other ways before going to lớn heaven, whither he went every day in order lớn take part in the discussions in the celestial house of study ("Metibta"). Thence he would presently desckết thúc again lớn the earth in order to be present—invisibly—at the debates in the earthly houses of learning. Then, after investigating the fastenings of the well, to lớn ascertain if they had been tampered with, he drank of the water.

Benaiah Captures Ashmedẻo.

Solotháng sent his chief man Benaiah ben Jehoiadah to capture Ashmedai. For this purpose he provided hyên ổn with a chain, a ring on which the Tetragrammaton was engraved, a bundle of wool, & a skin of wine. Benaiah drew off the water from the well through a hole that he bored, &, stopping up the source with the wool, filled the well with wine. When Ashmedai descended from heaven, lớn his astonishment he found wine instead of water in the well, although everything seemed untouched. At first he would not drink of it, & cited the Bible verses against wine (Prov. xx. 1, và Hosea iv. 11), in order to inspire himself with moral courage. At length Ashmedai succumbed to his consuming thirst, và drank until his senses were overpowered & he fell into a deep sleep. Benaiah then threw the chain about the demon"s neông chồng. Ashmedẻo on awaking tried khổng lồ không lấy phí himself, but Benaiah called lớn him: "The Name of thy Lord is upon thee."

Ashmedai"s Journey to lớn Solomon.

Though Ashmedẻo now permitted himself to be led off unresistingly, he acted most peculiarly on the way to Solomon. He brushed against a palm-tree and uprooted it; he knocked against a house & overturned it; and when, at the request of a poor woman, he was turning aside from her hut, he broke a bone, và asked with gryên humor: "Is it not written, "A soft tongue breaketh the bone"?" (Prov. xxv. 15). A blind man going astray he mix in the right path, and a similar kindness he did for a drunkard. He wept when a wedding company passed them, và laughed at one who asked his shoemaker khổng lồ make hyên shoes lớn last for seven years, and at a magician who was publicly showing his skill. Having finally arrived at the over of the journey, Ashmedai, after several days of waiting, was led before Solomon, who told hyên ổn that he wanted nothing of hlặng but the shamir. Ashmedẻo thereupon informed the king where it could be obtained.

Solomon then questioned hyên about his strange conduct on the journey. Ashmedai answered that he judged persons và things according lớn their real character & not according to lớn their appearance in the eyes of human beings. He cried when he saw the wedding company, because he knew the bridegroom had not a month lớn live; and he laughed at hlặng who wanted shoes lớn last seven years, because the man would not own them for seven days; also at the magician who pretended khổng lồ disclose secrets, because he did not know that under his very feet lay a buried treasure.

Ashmedẻo remained with Solotháng until the Temple was completed. One day the king told hyên that he did not understvà wherein the greatness of the demons lay, if their king could be kept in bonds by a mortal. Ashmedai replied that if Solotháng would remove his chains và lend him the magic ring, he (Ashmedai) would prove his own greatness. Solotháng agreed. The demon then stood before hyên ổn with one wing touching heaven, và the other reaching khổng lồ the earth. Snatching up Solomon, who had parted with his protecting ring, he flung hyên four hundred parasangs away from Jerusalem, and then palmed himself off as the king.

After long wanderings Solotháng returned to lớn reclaim his throne. At first the people thought him mad; but then the wise men decided it would be well khổng lồ regard Ashmedẻo more closely. It appeared on inquiry that not even Benaiah, the first in the service of the king, had ever been admitted to lớn his presence, và that Ashmedẻo in his marital relations had not observed the Jewish precepts. Moreover, the declaration of the king"s women that he always wore slippers, strengthened suspicion; for demons proverbially had cocks" feet. Solotháng, provided with another magic ring, at length suddenly appeared before Ashmedẻo, who thereupon took flight (Giṭ. 68; parallel passages, Midr. Teh. on Ps. lxxviii. 45; Yalḳ. ii. 182; compare Num. R. xi. 3; Targ. on Eccl. i. 12, and the extract from a manuscript Midrash in "Z. D. M. G." xxi. 2trăng tròn, 221).

Xem thêm: Cách Nấu Bún Nước Lèo Chay Thơm Ngon, Đơn Giản Đổi Vị Cho Gia Đình

Elements of the Ashmedai-Solotháng Legend.

Although the number of incidents concerning Ashmedai related by this Haggadah is fairly large, the fact must not be disregarded that many details grouped about hlặng are of later origin and vị not pertain khổng lồ Ashmedẻo at all. Ashmedai, as the false Solomon, is a Babylonian elaboration of the Palestinian Haggadah concerning Solomon"s punishment for his sins, which punishment consisted in the assumption of the throne by an angel; Solomon meanwhile having to wander about as a beggar (Yer. Sanh. ii. 6; Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, 169a; Tan., ed. Buber, iii. 55; Eccl. R. ii. 2; Simon b. YoḦai of the middle of thesecond century is quoted as the authority). Similarly, Ashmedai"s service in the construction of the Temple is probably an echo of the elaborate legend in the Testament of Solomon, according to which the demons were the chief laborers at the building of the Temple. This cycle of legends in the Testament of Solotháng is the source also of the myth concerning the wonderful ring whose inscription tames the demons, as well as of the incident that by virtue of the ring the demons were forced to lớn assist in erecting the Temple. (Test. Solotháng v.; compare vi.: "Throw this ring at the chest of the detháng & say to lớn hyên, "In the name of God, King Solomon calls thee hither."")

Furthermore, it is improbable that the shamir legend was originally an element of the Ashmedai legover. The Testament of Solomon (ix.) narrates how a demon, forced by Solomon to hew stones for the Temple, was afraid of the iron instruments; và, as Conybeare rightly observes ("Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 18), the fear of iron on the part of evil spirits is a feature comtháng khổng lồ both old and recent folk-lore. In the Talmud this fear is given a Jewish setting by connecting it with the legal precept against the use of iron tools, and by causing the demons to render the blocks of stone fit for use in the Temple structure without the use of iron.

A comparison of the Ashmedai legend with the Testament of Solotháng reveals also that many other points in the representation of demons by the former are general characteristics of demons. Thus Ashmedai"s wings correspond to the wings of Ornias in the Testament (x.). Ornias likewise daily visited heaven; và just as Ashmedẻo learned the fate of human beings in heaven, so, according to lớn the Testament (cxiii.), did all the demons. Consequently, Ornias could laugh at the king who was on the point of condemning a youth to lớn death who was destined lớn die at the over of three days (cxi.), just as Ashmedai laughed at the man who ordered shoes lớn last seven years, when he had not seven days to lớn live sầu.

Hence it follows that the passage in the Talmud provides little information concerning the more particular characteristics of Ashmedai. That he overturned a house và uprooted a tree indicates nothing; for with any detháng, however insignificant, such things are trifles. Ashmedẻo is not represented as doing these things from a mere desire khổng lồ destroy, but apparently through carelessness. The common opinion that in the Talmud, Ashmedai is depicted as particularly lustful and sensual, has no sufficient basis. The Talmud simply states that Ashmedẻo, while playing the part of Solotháng, did not observe the Jewish precepts pertaining to the separation of women (

), và that he attacked Bath-shetía, Solomon"s mother. These facts, in reality, were khổng lồ prove sầu only that Ashmedai was not Solomon.

The question now arises whether Asmodeus & Ashmedẻo may be considered as closely allied with each other, & identical with the Persian archdetháng, Æshma or Æshma-dæva, as was first suggested by Benfey, & developed by Windischmann and Kohut.

In regard to lớn Æshma, very frequently mentioned in the Zend-Avesta & the Pahlavi texts, Darmesteter says:

Asmodeus, Ashmedai, & Æshma.

"Originally a mere epithet of the storm fiend, Æshma was afterward converted inlớn an abstraction, the detháng of rage & anger, and became an expression for all wickedness, a mere name of Ahriman <"Introduction to Vendidad," iv. 22>. This mô tả tìm kiếm of Æshma, as he appears in the Zend-Avesta, tallies with the dominant conception in Pahlavi writings. Thus in Dabistung, i., Dink, xxxvii. 164: "The impetuous assailant, Wrath (Æshm), when he does not succeed in causing strife among mỏi the righteous, flings discord và strife amid the wicked; & when he does not succeed as lớn the strife even of the wicked, he makes the demons and the fiends fight together.""

In "Shayast ha-Shayast" (xviii.) Æshm is described, quite unlike Ahriman, as the "chief agent of the evil spirit in his machinations against mankind, rushing inkhổng lồ his master"s presence in hell lớn complain of the difficulties he encounters."

A consideration of the linguistic arguments does not support the hypothesis of an identification of Ashmedẻo with Æshma-dæva, as "dai" in Ashmedẻo hardly corresponds with the Persian "dæva," in view of the Syriac form "dawya" (demon) with the consonant "w"; nor is there any instance of the linking of "Æshma" & "dæva" in Persian texts. The Asmodeus of the Apocrypha, & Æshma, however, seem khổng lồ be related. In the Testament of Solotháng Asmodeus appears as seducing man khổng lồ unchaste deeds, murder, & enmity, & thus reveals many points in comtháng with Æshma. The "Bundehish" (xxviii. 15-18) furnishes the most striking resemblance: "There, wherever Æshm lays a foundation, many creatures perish."

Ashmedẻo & Shamdon.

Ashmedẻo of the Solomonic legkết thúc, on the other hvà, is not at all a harmful and destructive spirit. Like the devil in medieval Christian folk-lore, he is a "king of demons" (Pes. 110a), degraded & no longer the dreaded arch-fiover, but the object of popular humor và irony. The name "Ashmedai" was probably taken as signifying "the cursed,"

(compare Nöldeke, in Euting"s "Nabatäisbít Inschriften," pp. 31, 32), just as "la"in" (the cursed), is the Arabic name of Sarã. Thus the name "Shamdon" (
), is found in Palestinian Midrashyên ổn.

It is related of Shamdon that at the planting of the first vine by Noah he helped with the work, but said khổng lồ Noah: "I want to join you in your labor và share with you; but have heed that you take not of my portion lest I vị you harm" (Gen. R. xxxvi. 3); in the legend in Midrash Abkir, and cited in Yalḳ. i. 61, Sarã figures as the chief personality. The second thing told of this Shamdon is that in the Golden Age he had an encounter with a new-born child wherein he was worsted (Lev. R. v. 1, according khổng lồ the reading of the "Aruk, s.v.


Ashmedẻo in Later Sources.

In later sources, Shamdon is held to lớn be the father of Ashmedai, whose mother they say was Naamah, sister of Tubal Cain (NaḦmanides on Gen. iv. 22; from this comes the same statement in BaḦya b. Asher, Zioni, & Recanati in their commentaries, ad loc.). This legkết thúc of Ashmedai"s birth tallies with the assertion of Asmodeus in the Testament of Solomon: "I was born of angel"s seed by a daughter of man" (xxi.). In the Zohar, Ashmedai is represented as the teacher of Solomon, towhom he gave sầu a book of magic và medicine (Zohar Lev. pp. 19a, 43a; ib. Num. 199b, ed. Wilna). In a more recent Midrash Ashmedai is identified with Shamdon (Midr. Shir ha-Shirlặng, ed. Grünhut, 29b; a story similar to lớn the one here given of Solomon"s ring và the fish is found in "Emeḳ ha-Melek," 14a-15a, và in the Judæo-German "Maasebuch"; the story is reprinted in Jellinek, "B. H." ii. 86). A recent source gives the following legkết thúc cited by the Tosafists in Men. 37a from an anonymous Midrash, which has probably been lost:

(This legend is given at length in Jellinek, "B. H." iv. 151, 152.)

"Ashmedẻo brought forth from the earth a two-headed man, who married & produced both normal & two-headed children. When the man died a quarrel arose aao ước the children concerning their inheritance, the two-headed ones demanding a double portion."

Later cabalists held the theory that Ashmedẻo was king of the demons for only a limited time, và that on his death—demons are mortal (Ḥag. 16a)—he was succeeded by Bildad, who in turn left his dominion to Hind (see Jos. Sossnitz, "Ha-Maor," p. 84). Benjamin of Tudela (ed. Margolin, 63, 65) mentions a certain local legkết thúc about Baalbek, whose temple was erected by Ashmedẻo, on Solomon"s bidding, for the king"s favorite, the daughter of Pharaoh.

Concerning the many points of resemblance of the Ashmedai-Solomon legkết thúc with Persian và classic legends, see Shamir, Solomon in Rabbinical Literature, & Æshma.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *